April 2018, Volume 21, No.10 Abstracts（A）
1.China National Health Development Researcher Center，Beijing 100191，China
2.Science and Technology Education Department，National Health and Family Planning Commission of the PRC，Beijing 100191，China
3.Nanjing Medical University，Nanjing 211166，China
*Corresponding author：ZHANG Guang-peng，Researcher；E-mail：firstname.lastname@example.org
【Abstract】 The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China，pointed out that the development of community-level healthcare service delivery system and the general practitioner（GP） workforce should be improved.On January，2018，the General Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China promulgated the Opinions on the Reform of the Training and Incentive Mechanism for General Practitioners，in which a series of major reform initiatives concerning the improvement of the training and incentive mechanism of general practitioners were formulated based on the challenges existing in primary care and people's health needs.We wrote this report containing a concise presentation of the development of GP workforce in China（including the training and construction status at present），and the relative goals need to be achieved and the key programs demand to be implemented in the future，providing a valuable reference for further development of general medicine in China.
【Key words】 General practitioners；Education，medical；Present situation
The Elderly Health Care Services in Different Countries and Regions and its Enlightenment to the Mainland China WANG Xiao-di1，2，Louis Yen2，GUO Qing3*，CHEN Ya-ting1，HU Jun-jiang4
1.School of Medicine，Hangzhou Normal University，Hangzhou 310036，China
2.Confucious Institute，University of Michigan，Ann Arbor 48109，the United States
3.Principal's Office，Zhejiang Chinese Medical University，Hangzhou 310053，China
4.School of Pharmacy，Zhejiang Chinese Medical University，Hangzhou 310053，China
*Corresponding author：GUO Qing，Professor，Doctoral supervisor；E-mail：email@example.com
【Abstract】 Since the 1970s，the UN and WHO have attached importance to the aging population and the maintenance of the elderly all over the world and put forward the goal of “healthy aging”.This paper chooses the US，the UK，Japan and Hong Kong of China as cases to introduce their policies to cope with the trend of aging on this issue and achievements that they have made.In response to the gradually deepening of the aging trend in mainland China，it has proposed to coordinate the multi-sectoral joint actions to ensure the common development of shortcomings in order to develop the elderly health care system.Due to multiple causes and effects of the chronic disease and its prevention and control，the health care system for elderly care is constructed based on the health needs of the elderly combining medical treatment and endowment as the core in the context of “Healthy China 2030”.
【Key words】 Aged；Health services；Health services for the aged；Enlightenment
Equity of Health Resource Distribution in Community Health Service Institutions in China LI Zhi-gang，DU Fu-yi，LI Li-qing*
School of Economics and Management，Jiangxi Science ＆ Technology Normal University，Nanchang 330013，China
*Corresponding author：LI Li-qing，Professor，Master supervisor；E-mail：firstname.lastname@example.org
【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the equity of health resource distribution in community health service institutions in China and to provide scientific basis for further optimization of health resource distribution and rational formulation of development strategies for community health service.Methods Based on National Health Expenditure Report 2015，China's Health Statistics 2005—2013，China's Health and Family Planning Statistics 2014—2015，the health expenditure，number of institutions，number of beds and number of health technicians of community health service institutions from 2005 to 2014 were obtained in China to analyze the development trend of health resource distribution in community health service institutions and to explore its equity by Lorenz curves and Gini coefficient.Results From 2005 to 2014，the health expenditure，number of institutions，number of beds and number of health technicians in community health service institutions in China increased by 80.499 billion yuan，17 110，170 895 and 385 207 respectively with an average annual growth rate of 31.91%，8.00%，25.69% and 18.82%.The Lorenz curve showed that the fairness of health expenditure，number of institutions，number of beds and number of health technicians by population distribution were higher than that of the distribution by area nationwide as well as in the eastern，central，and western regions in 2014.In 2014，the Gini coefficients of health expenditure，number of institutions，number of beds and number of health technicians by population distribution nationwide in community health service institutions were 0.56，0.36，0.27 and 0.29 respectively，while those based on area distribution were 0.84，0.73，0.70 and 0.73 respectively.Gini coefficients of the above indicators by population distribution in the eastern region were 0.54，0.35，0.31 and 0.29 respectively，while those based on area distribution were 0.69，0.50，0.48 and 0.46 respectively.Gini coefficients of the above indicators by population distribution in the central region were 0.23，0.21，0.15 and 0.14 respectively，while those based on area distribution were 0.30，0.38，0.30 and 0.27 respectively.Gini coefficients of the above indicators by population distribution in the western region were 0.30，0.32，0.29 and 0.22 respectively，while those based on area distribution were 0.66，0.50，0.62 and 0.59 respectively.Conclusion The health resource distribution in community health service institutions is developing rapidly in China.In 2014，the fairness of health resource distribution by population distribution was higher than that of the distribution by area nationwide as well as in the eastern，central and western regions of China.There are problems of uneven development and unfair distribution among different regions，while health resource distribution in the central region is fairly fair.The government should formulate health policies in line with the development situation of the region according to its local population and economic conditions to allocate health resources fairly and reasonably in order to improve the fairness of health services.
【Key words】 Community health services；Health resources；Health care rationing；Lorenz curve；Gini coefficient
Development of a Performance Appraisal System for Essential Public Health Service Delivery Institutions in Chongqing CHENG Sa-nuo1，HE Ping1*，DENG Yu1，PAN Lun1，HU Bin2，WU Jian-hua3，DENG Zhong-quan2
1.School of Clinical Medicine，Chongqing Medical and Pharmaceutical College，Chongqing 401331，China
2.Chongqing Community and Rural Health Association，Chongqing 400030，China
3.Health and Family Planning Commission of Chongqing，Chongqing 401147，China
*Corresponding author：HE Ping，Professor；E-mail：email@example.com
【Abstract】 Objective To develop a performance appraisal system for essential public health service delivery institutions in Chongqing，providing an objective reference for evaluating the performance of institutions in Chongqing and other regions of western China in implementing public health programs.Methods We developed the initial Performance Appraisal System for Essential Public Health Service Delivery Institutions in Chongqing（PASEPHSDIC） and Expert Consultation Questionnaire based on the relative policies in Chongqing and China，literature review and other methods as well as the PASEPHSDIC（2016 edition）.Using Delphi method，we determined the indicators and corresponding weight coefficients of the final version of PASEPHSDIC.Results From September 2016 to March 2017，we conducted 2 rounds of Delphi expert consultation，and both of them achieved 100.0% response rate.The overall authority coefficient（Cr）was 0.878.The Kendall's W for the first and second round of consultation was 0.320 and 0.386，respectively.The final version of PASEPHSDIC consists of 5 first-level indicators，26 second-level indicators and 67 third-level indicators，with weight assigned to each indicator.The Cronbach' s α for the whole system was 0.666.Conclusion The PASEPHSDIC was developed with high response rate，authority degree and good consensus from experts，although the Kendall's W of the second round of consultation was higher than that of the first round.This system is scientific and reasonable，which can be used as a tool for objectively assessing the quality of essential public health services in Chongqing.
【Key words】 Public health services；Performance appraisal；Delphi method；Indicator system
Policies Associated with the Implementation of Hierarchical Medical System across Different Provinces of the Mainland of China：a Comparative Study ZHANG Yi1，LU Dong-min1，CHEN Ya-ping2，ZHUANG Yi-yu3，FENG Wen-ming4，SHEN Jian-tong1*，WEN Qiu-yue1
1.Nursing School，Huzhou University College of Medicine，Huzhou 313000，China
2.Huzhou Wuxing District People's Hospital，Huzhou 313000，China
3.Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital，Zhejiang University School of Medicine，Hangzhou 311500，China
4.The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou University，Huzhou 313000，China
*Corresponding author：SHEN Jian-tong，Lecturer；E-mail：firstname.lastname@example.org