March 2018, Volume 21, No.8 Abstracts（A）
1.Hebei Medical University，Shijiazhuang 050000，China
2.Hebei General Hospital，Shijiazhuang 050000，China
*Corresponding author：GUO Yi-fang，Chief physician，Professor；E-mail：firstname.lastname@example.org
【Abstract】 After its publication in 2013，evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults report from the panel members of appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee（JNC8） has caused widespread controversy in the world.Four years later，some academic institutions，such as the American College of Cardiology（ACC） and the American Heart Association（AHA），organized experts to write a new version of hypertension guidelines.Many recommendations of the new guidelines were impacted significantly by the results of SPRINT trail，and made more radical recommendations for the diagnosis of hypertension and the targets of blood pressure control.Because of the different national conditions，some of the guidelines may not apply to China.The clinical practice in China should still be based on the current Chinese guidelines for the prevention and treatment of hypertension.
【Key words】 Hypertension；Guidebooks；Diagnosis；Blood pressure determination；Antihypertensive agents
An Equity Analysis of International Health LEI Guang-he1*，ZHANG Hai-xia2
1.School of Humanities and Management of Guangdong Medical University/Institute of Health Law and Policy of Guangdong Medical University，Dongguan 523808，China
2.Guangdong Medical University Class of 2013，Dongguan 523808，China
*Corresponding author：LEI Guang-he，Prafessor；E-mail：email@example.com
【Abstract】 In recent years，the health status of individuals in various countries worldwide has been greatly improved，but the health conditions across different countries differ significantly and health inequity still exists.The main purpose of this paper is to study the changes in international health equity in the last decade.The fairness of international health was investigated and its relevant factors were determined in terms of life expectancy，maternal mortality，infant and child mortality as well as other commonly used indices.Thus，we objectively compared the health conditions in our country with those in other countries，which allows us to learn from international experiences and lessons in order to better develop our health facilities.
【Key words】 Health；Equity；Life expectancy；Maternal mortality；Child mortality
Recent Advances in Human Trace Element Determination Methods and Clinical Application XIONG Chan1，LI Qing2，MA Qing-wei2，3*
1.Institute of Chemistry，Graz University，Graz 8010，Austria
2.Bioyong Technology Inc，Beijing 102206，China
3.Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies，Peking University，Beijing 100871，China
*Corresponding author：MA Qing-wei；E-mail：firstname.lastname@example.org
【Abstract】 Trace elements play an important role in maintaining human metabolism and life activities，and affect human health in a complicated way.Excessive intake of certain trace elements might be toxic to human whereas inadequate intake of essential elements may lead to human metabolic disorders caused by enzyme dysfunction.With the rapid development of industrialization and technology，more and more heavy metal components have been spread into the environment through the sewage disposal，which result in varying degrees of air，water and soil pollution as well as metabolic disorders due to one or more trace elements imbalances in body fluids.Using key techniques for determining the trace elements can identify the balance status of trace elements in human body.In this paper，we compared the characteristics and application challenges of various techniques related to trace element determination，aiming to provide theoretical support and technical guidance for clinical use of such determinations.
【Key words】 Trace element；Medical laboratory science；Reference values；Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
Development of a Structured Treatment and Education Program for Insulin-treated Type 2 Diabetic Patients in China LIU Ke-ke1，LI Ming-zi1*，JIANG Hua1，LIU Ye-ling1，LUO Ying-ying2，SUN Xiao-hong1，SHEN Jing-jing1，JI Li-nong2
1.Peking University School of Nursing，Beijing 100191，China
2.Department of Endocrinology，Peking University People's Hospital，Beijing 100191，China
*Corresponding author：LI Ming-zi，Professor；E-mail：email@example.com
【Abstract】 Objective To develop a structured treatment and education program（STEP） for insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients in China.Methods By reviewing literature，we analyzed the needs of insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients.Based upon the standards of structured curriculum development and empowerment theory as well as the pedagogic principles，the structured curricula and teaching materials were developed，and further revised and improved by experts.Results The curricula set 29 learning objectives covering 3 domains，namely，the cognitive，psychomotor and affective domain.The curriculum contents include 2 therapeutic items and 10 educational items.Delivered by professional doctors and nurses once a week，the curricula comprise a 4-week group session.The outcome evaluations include formative assessment and summative assessment.Formative assessment is conducted throughout the whole teaching process in order to timely identify the problems of the patients and give solutions and summative assessment indicators include diabetic knowledge，behavior，self-efficacy and laboratory indices.Conclusion With the guiding of empowerment theory，guidelines and literature review，the SETP developed for insulin-treated Chinese type 2 diabetic patients meets the global standards.With concise contents and standardized teaching process，this STEP has the potential to empower more type 2 diabetic patients to adopt intensive insulin treatment and deserves further clinical application.
【Key words】 Diabetes mellitus，type 2；Insulin；Structured curriculum；Patient education
Effect of First-year Follow-up Intervention for Post-discharge CHD Patients from Provincial-，Municipal- and County- level Hospitals in Yunnan，China：a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Clinical Study SUN Huang1，LI Rui-jie1，LU Ya-nan1，GUO Tao1*，SHU Zhan-kun2，HE Ze-yuan3，LU Jing 4，LIU Yong-hua5
1.Department of Cardiology，First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University，Kunming 650032，China
2.Department of Cardiology，Luoping County People's Hospital，Luoping 655800，China
3.Department of Cardiology，People's Hospital of Yulong County，Yulong 674100，China
4.Department of Cardiology，the People's Hospital of Wenshan Prefecture，Wenshan 663000，China
5.Department of Cardiology，Baoshan People's Hospital，Baoshan 678000，China
*Corresponding author：GUO Tao，Professor，Doctoral supervisor；E-mail：Guotao_20@hotmail.com
【Abstract】 Objective To study whether the intervention therapy for post-discharge coronary heart disease（CHD） patients conducted in the first-year follow-up，a program participated by provincial-，municipal- and county-level hospitals in southwest China's Yunnan province，is an effective way to improve patient compliance with secondary prevention and to reduce the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events（MACE）.Methods Altogether 2 119 eligible CHD patients，who were discharged from First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University，Baoshan People's Hospital，the People's Hospital of Wenshan Prefecture，People's Hospital of Yulong County，Luoping County People's Hospital located in Yunnan from September 1，2014 to August 31，2015，were recruited by the program，with 915 patients randomly assigned to the intervention group and 1 204 to the control group based on the admission time.The control group only received the follow-up intervention at the end of the first year after discharge，but the intervention group received face-to-face interview before discharge and a one-year positive post-discharge follow-up，including 13 telephone visits and face-to-face interviews conducted at the end of the 1st，6th and 12th months after discharge with the contents of MACE，compliance with secondary preventive medication and vital signs，and lab results.Results In the end，780（85.2%） in the intervention group and 992（82.4%） in the control group completed the follow-up intervention.At one year after discharge，the differences between the two groups in death rate，incidence of non-fatal MI，CABG treatment，stroke and bleeding had no statistical significance（P>0.05）.The intervention group had fewer patients with PCI treatment，unplanned inpatient treatment and MACE（P<0.05）.The differences between the two groups in BMI，SBP，DBP and frequency of exercise had no statistical significance either（P>0.05）.The intervention group had lower average value of HR and LDL-C but higher average value of LVEF，longer average time of exercise and higher average medication fee than the control group（P<0.05）.The differences between the two groups in the use of ACEI/ARB and β-blocker had no statistical significance（P>0.05）.The intervention group had higher rates of use aspirin，clopidogrel and statins than the control group